Thursday, December 10, 2009

Academic Articles

"Evacuation and the Cohesion of Urban Groups"

Journal- The American Journal of Sociology

By: Eleanor H. Bernert & Fred C. Ikle

Published 1952

Topic: Domestic Evacuation

An in-depth, social and psychological examination about the effects of the children's evacuation from England. This article explores the mentality of the people in London as a result of the mass evacuation of children from the cities. The authors dissect the impact of the children leaving and the morale ramifications that occurred because of it. It also contains statistics and demographics of the evacuees and comparisons to evacuation situations in other European countries during the war. Learn about the obstacles the host families and parents encountered as they were separated from their children and raising someone else’s children.

"Britain's Experience with Adolescents"

Journal- Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

By: Eleanor Boll

Published 1944

Topic: Problems with Evacuation- Social/Psychological problems

This article contains information pertaining to the demographics of the evacuees and how the program was catered to young children. It assesses the problems that many adolescents, between the ages of 13-17, faced both at home and those who were evacuated. Included in this article are government mandates and programs designed for those who were not evacuated. It also focuses on the psychological impact of the adolescences as a result of being taken away from their family and comfort zone for a long period of time.

"Evacuation Problems in Britain"

Journal- Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science

By: Phillip H. Cook

Published 1941

Topic: Problems with Evacuation

Taking a pessimistic view at the first evacuation wave to leave London and head to the countryside or overseas, Cook focuses on the issues that were plaguing the evacuees, families, and hosts. This article provides a commentary on flaws in the evacuation, including that it was created by “minds that are military, male, and middle class.” It provides an interesting perspective because this article was written while the evacuations were still occurring. Take a look at his predictions about the fate of the evacuees and compare it with others to see if they came true.

"Mental Health of Children and Families in Wartime"

Journal- Review of Educational Research
By: Arthur T. Jersild
Published 1943

Topics: Psychological Health of Children

In this article, Jersild discusses the many factors that influence a child's reaction during wartime events. Evidence shows that the response to bombing and the threat of bombing has caused fear and depression in children. This article also explains how children with a history of emotional disturbance tend to show a higher rate of unsatisfactory adjustment to wartime evacuations.

"British Evacuees in America during World War II"

Journal- Journal of American Culture
By: Keith A. Parker
Published 1994

Topics: Planning, International Evacuation

In the summer of 1940 a group of socially concerned people set up the United States Committee for the Care of European Children to arrange for the temporary care of evacuated children out of the war zone. In his article, Parker discusses the responsibilities the committee had with bringing the children in and finding them foster homes. Initially preparing for thousands of British children, the article discusses how the impact of the sinking of the SS City of Benares halted the program and the committee’s operations.

"Children's Experiences of War: Handicapped Children in England During The Second World War"

Journal- 20th Century British History

By: Sue Wheatcroft

Published 2008

Topic: Comprehensive, Physically handicapped children

The experiences of children in World War II have attracted attention in both the scholarly and popular worlds, but not all children have received equal attention. Details about the experiences and evacuation of handicapped children have been left out of all types of literature about World War II. In this article, Wheatcroft discusses the plans that were made for their evacuation, how they were carried out, and compares their lives with the handicapped children that were not evacuated. The article also compares the experiences of handicapped children with those of their non-handicapped counterparts.

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